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Track 4 Teaching and Learning

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Education Networks: The Bias of Planning

Physical or Virtual Networks? Connecting Swedish Schools to the Internet - Paper 118

Johan GROTH
National Agency for Education and ISOC-SE
Sweden

Between 1994 and 1998 the use of information technology, especially Internet, has rocketed in Swedish K12-schools. The Swedish Schoolnet, which is a national effort to encourage schools to take advantage of Internet as a pedagogical tool, has played an important part in this development. The project is run by the National Agency for Education on commission by the Ministry of Education and Science. The work is characterized by a "content driven" approach, i.e., the main role of the project is to increase the amount of, for schools, useful content on Internet and thereby, indirectly, stimulate the use of new tools and media. This is opposed to a "material" approach characterized by government subsidies for hardware, software and Internet access and/or direct government involvement as an Internet service provider for the educational sector. The work has been most successful. Today a majority of the Swedish schools regularly use Internet for communication and to find and/or publish information.

Providing Internet Support Services for Large Education Systems - Paper 051

Philip J. BOSSERT
University of Hawaii USA

In 1994, the National Science Foundation funded the "Hawaii Education & Research Network" (HERN) project, a four-year research program jointly sponsored by the University of Hawaii and the Hawaii State Department of Education to determine appropriate strategies for providing Internet access and support services to Hawaii's entire education community: all students, faculty, and staff of Hawaii's public and private higher education and K-12 institutions. In any given semester, this number ranged between 350,000 and 375,000 potential users who were dispersed across more than 300 separate campuses or administrative buildings and more than 200,000 households on seven different islands statewide.

The HERN project began with the advantages of an existing statewide educational technology planning organization -- the Hawaii Educational Networking Consortium (HENC) -- and an existing statewide, high-speed, fiber- and microwave-based network operated by the state government. The primary disadvantage was that almost all of the state's Internet knowledge base was resident in only a few dozen information technology support personnel at the University of Hawaii.

The HERN project proceeded on the assumption that the state's educational institutions -- and in particular the state's public and private K-12 institutions -- would not have the funding required to develop and maintain a large-scale, corporate-style network infrastructure and support staff, but that this particular group of users (students and faculty), once online, would likely make much heavier use of the network than would a typical corporate user group. With these assumptions as a basis, the HERN project developed and tested a variety of strategies for deploying and supporting both the physical network infrastructure and the human training and support infrastructure required to provide Internet access to 350,000+ students, faculty, and staff -- both at their institutions and their homes.

The paper discusses the results of the first three years of this research program, including

  • The evolution of the Hawaii Internet Exchange (HIX) at the University of Hawaii;
  • The Ethernet-over-CATV pilot project in cooperation with Time Warner to test its feasibility as a source of high-speed Internet access for both school and home;
  • The HERN Institute for teaching online collaborative teaching and learning skills;
  • The HERN self-help e-mail list; and
  • The Hawaii ClubEd training exchange.

The concluding portion of the paper provides an assessment of what worked and what didn't -- and why.

Lessons Learned From the Network Montana Project - Paper 231

David A. THOMAS
Montana State University USA

Lynn D. CHURCHILL
Cynthia S. THOMAS
University of Montana USA

This paper is an end-of-project report focusing on lessons learned in the Network Montana Project (NMP), a three-year, National Science Foundation-funded, statewide collaborative effort to construct a scalable, sustainable network for Montana's K-12 educational system.

Distance Education: Why, How and What For?

Synchronous Distance Education and the Internet - Paper 389

J. Mark PULLEN
George Mason University USA

The advent of the World Wide Web has seen a tremendous expansion in use of the Internet for asynchronous teaching and learning, where the teachers place documents online and the learners access the information when it is convenient. This paper, however, addresses the role of synchronous Internet communication in distributed teaching and learning, where the teachers and learners are connected to the network simultaneously and communicate in real time. Although the asynchronous mode clearly offers more convenience to participants, the synchronous mode also has much to recommend it. The comparison is roughly the same as that between correspondence courses and classroom teaching.

This paper addresses the merits of the synchronous mode, both from a philosophical standpoint and from the experience base we have developed at George Mason University (GMU) in offering experimentally several different types of synchronous distance education. In ten semesters of experimental synchronous distributed education, we have used a considerable variety of media with a wide range of students in several subjects. We have learned that the best teaching and learning environment is one that makes a mixture of media and information-sharing styles readily available so the teacher can select at will and move among them during a synchronous-distance/distributed-teaching session. The paper concludes with a list of research questions that are ripe for investigation, taken from the top of the sizable list of unexplored issues surrounding synchronous distance education. In the answers to these questions, we believe, lies the future of higher education.

Improving Open and Distance Learning (ODL) Initiatives Through the Internet in Developing Countries: The Case of CIFFAD (International Francophone Consortium of Distance and Open Learning Institutions) - Paper 102

Cyrille SIMARD
Denis LOPEZ
Sékou Chérif FOFANA
Agence de la Francophonie France

The fast development of ICT has brought the CIFFAD, a consortium of open and distance learning institutions spread over 49 countries, of which 80% are in developing nations, into a phase of reengineering. The purpose of this paper is to show that Open and Distance Learning (ODL) Internet based projects developed in a gradual implementation and appropriation perspective constitute a proper "methodology" to help institutions in developing nations take the "quantum leap" correctly, as well as a major development in the field of distance learning as a discipline. Projects that integrate the use of Internet in the conception, realization and delivery of open and distance learning materials are presented. The general approach used to integrate Internet in the practices of ODL in developing countries and results already attained and/or expected are also presented. Finally, a framework for the appropriation of ITC in developing countries is proposed and discussed.

Evaluation Frameworks for ICT-Based Distance Learning - Paper 233

Sam LANFRANCO
Bellanet Secretariat and York University Canada

This paper views the ICT-based electronic venue as a learning workspace and social process arena. It focuses on how to (1) conceptualize, (2) plan, and (3) evaluate learning in the presence of the ICT-enabled electronic venue. It broadens the scope of the inquiry well beyond the narrow issue of how to evaluate technology-based delivery tools. The paper presents a meta-framework for the design and evaluation of learning strategies. This meta-framework operates at one level above any number of specific design and evaluation tasks. Its role is to help create appropriate design and evaluation templates, given the learning process and the learning situation at hand.

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Teaching the Teacher

Web-based Instruction and Learning: Analysis and Needs Assessment Summary - Paper 290

Marianne MCCARTHY
National Aeronautics and Space Administration USA

Barbara GRABOWSKI
Tiffany KOSZALKA
Pennsylvania State University USA

The Pennsylvania State University and NASA Dryden Flight Research Center are working together to analyze, develop, implement, and evaluate instructional materials that enable teachers to use the World Wide Web effectively for teaching science, math, and technology. As part of the NASA Dryden Learning Technologies Project, the first phase in accomplishing this goal was to complete a needs assessment to determine how the Web could be integrated into the classroom. This needs assessment examined existing school infrastructure; science, math, and technology content in the curriculum and on the WWW; and the processes of teaching and learning. The goal of the needs assessment was to develop an understanding of the current state of WWW use in the educational environment to create a vision of how classrooms could be modified or adapted to include the WWW as a resource to enhance teaching and learning. The purpose of this presentation and paper is to summarize the results of this needs assessment.

The needs assessment was conducted in three phases. In the first phase, the school context was analyzed. The second phase consisted of a review of the science, math, and technology content. Phase three consisted of reviewing the processes of teaching and learning, which in combination with the results of the first two phases resulted in the development of Web-Enhanced Learning Environment (WELE) strategies that exemplify the most meaningful ways the WWW can be used in the classroom.

The investigation about school context focused on areas that are critical to integrating and using computer technology to deliver instruction in an educational setting. These included administrative infrastructure, technology infrastructure, and teacher factors.

In the second phase of the assessment, school-appropriate science, math, and technology content areas were explored. The structure of the National Education Standards and school curriculum were studied along with how existing NASA Web-based material might fit within this structure. The areas of study included school curriculum and existing NASA material.

Within the third phase of the needs assessment, the teaching and learning processes were investigated. The investigators reviewed the ways that instruction could be presented most effectively for the teacher and the student. Processes included best practices using the WWW in the classroom, teacher tutorials, and learning theories and teaching practices.

The purpose of the in-depth investigation of each of these eight areas was to identify which dimensions defined the area and further specify the critical factors for using the Web in the classroom. These dimensions and critical factors provided a structure for reporting the results found for each area.

The results of the needs assessment will be reported by the eight areas of investigation: Administrative Infrastructure, Technical Infrastructure, Teacher Factors, Curriculum, Existing NASA Material, Current Best Practices Using the WWW in the Classroom, Teacher Tutorials about the WWW, and Learning Theories and Teaching Practices.

Each area description includes an overall definition of the area, the investigation procedures, key dimensions, and conclusions. Each dimension was subdivided further by specific defining factors that made up that dimension. References and exemplary schools or Web sites which support the data are also provided.

The paper will conclude with a summary of the key trends identified that impact how, and more importantly, if the WWW would be used to support classroom instruction. Understanding each of these eight areas and their relationship to optimal WWW use in the classroom will ultimately aid in the development of instructional strategies and teacher training. T

he need to understand the instructional role of the WWW is related not only to its potential power as a learning tool, but also to the fact that this medium is rapidly becoming an integral part of the global economy in which future generations will have to compete. We are obliged as teachers and developers to increase the scientific and technical literacy of the young to prepare them for the future.

Connecting Teachers to the Future - Paper 217

Andy GRAY
Phil BUCHANAN
Education Queensland Australia

This paper discusses a model of professional development for teachers in schools in Queensland that employs information and communication technologies. In the past ten years, significant funding has been provided to schools for integration of information technology in our schools. The majority of this funding has focused on exposing students to the technology. The Connecting Teachers to the Future project changes this focus to the teachers.

Queensland is an Australian state with a relatively small population spread over a large geographic area with large distances between population centers. Using Internet resources, specifically electronic mail and the World Wide Web, the Connecting Teachers to the Future project models an effective means of meeting the challenge of providing professional development and the necessary ongoing support to teachers scattered across the state. The paper identifies several areas of educational, motivational, and cultural change that have occurred during the project so far.

A Cost-effective and "Learning-effective" Model for K-12 Internet Teacher Training - Paper 077

Mary Fran YAFCHAK
NYSERNet, Inc. USA

The NYNEX-NYSERNet Train-the-Trainer K-12 Pilot Program (http://nysernet.org/projects/nynex-k12) materialized from the realization that although more and more K-12 institutions are becoming connected to the Internet, it appears that a frighteningly small percentage of those schools are prepared to integrate that connection with actual classroom use or even make it readily available among their teachers as a tool for collaboration, research, and classroom preparation.

In June 1996, NYSERNet sought and received funding from the NYNEX Corporation to investigate a particular model for Internet teacher training that could help remedy this situation -- a model that seemed to be cost-effective as well as "learning effective." It was proposed that Internet-aware teachers could act as Internet trainers themselves and conduct training throughout their own districts and schools.

The program was conducted over the 1996-97 school year within the following districts and schools in Central New York (USA): Binghamton City School District, Binghamton; Ithaca City School District, Ithaca; Liverpool City School District, Liverpool; Syracuse City School District, Liverpool; Ed Smith Elementary School, Syracuse; Rome Free Academy, Rome; and Whitesboro Middle School, Whitesboro.

Each participating district/school was at a different point in terms of its level and current use of Internet connectivity as well as the amount of training its teachers had already received.

The schools and districts involved selected their own teachers to participate in the Train-the-Trainer program. Each participant received three days of hands-on Internet instruction, instruction in how to teach similar courses at their own schools, and materials to support their on-site instruction. Support for the on-site implementations was available throughout the project via telephone, e-mail list, and optional site visits. As a critical part of the assessment of the Train-the-Trainer concept, trainers were allowed to adapt both the materials and the delivery where necessary to meet the needs of their particular schools as well as the very real constraints of the K-12 environment.

At the end of the project, participant feedback was solicited to provide insights into the effectiveness of the proposed model. Notable findings include the following:

  • In all cases, teacher-trainers made their own decisions about the degree of emphasis that topics proposed in the prototype training workshops would receive in their more tailored offerings to their specific districts or schools. Though this tailoring varied with each individual teacher-trainer, several trends emerged that could be used to design a more flexible and useful program.
  • All but one site compressed the 21 hours of original material to fit into available training time. Remaining sites found they could not allocate the full 21 hours due to scheduling and staffing constraints common within K-12 environment: cost of substitute teachers for sessions during the school day; issues of compensation for sessions outside the school day; and lack of computing facilities and concentrated time spans available when teachers are available.
  • As material was compressed to fit into practical schedules, teacher-trainers universally sought ways to compensate for the reduction in time and material, including creation of additional handouts, addition of practice assignments, and offering personal one-on-one support outside class.
  • Even as teacher-trainers were compressing materials, most also actually added material of their own with the goal of further customizing sessions and improving relevance to their specific group. Even with time at a premium, this customization prevailed.

By the end of June 1996, 357 teachers out of an admittedly ambitious goal of 500 had been trained, representing all participating districts and schools. For this reason alone, the program could be declared a success. However, along with this simple but important statistic, the project produced other valuable results:

  • All of the organizations that worked together to bring about the Train-the-Trainer program received valuable input as to how well this model worked and what changes could be made to make it even more effective. With the publication of the final report, the knowledge gained and lessons learned can be shared beyond the boundaries of the project.
  • The program served to jump-start initiatives, both formal and informal, at many of the participating schools. These ranged from the scheduling of additional training and justification for additional funding to the less concrete but incredibly valuable fostering of enthusiasm among teachers and staff.
  • Some hard, but very important, lessons were learned (or perhaps re-emphasized) about how well schools could and could not integrate the training model. These included the we-can't-say-it-enough adage of "there is no substitute for time"; the importance of adequately functioning and accessible technology; and the need for heightened sensitivity to the particulars of the K-12 environment.

The final conclusion of this project is that the Train-the-Trainer model for Internet training is particularly appropriate for the K-12 environment. We also conclude that the implementation of a local tailored offering is not as easy as it might appear even given a prescribed training program. Teacher-trainers faced a wide variety of issues when trying to plan, schedule, and implement locally, most of which involved the management of time -- their own time for planning and teaching; training participants' time for attending; and everyone's time for practice and classroom integration. Additionally, there are different educational priorities and Internet foci across localities that create a need for customization, customization that again requires time.

While we can't make the above issues go away, we should be able reduce the toll they take on the training effort. Increased flexibility and modularity at all points seem necessary. Perhaps the easiest target for this is the pilot training program itself. A second generation of workshops and materials that take into account the feedback from this project would be a logical next step. Other targets -- support for a training program implementation, working within constraints of active teacher schedules, access to technology -- are not as easy to hit. They are complex by their nature and more difficult to recommend solutions for. With the publishing and presentation of project results, we hope to provide some insights, guidance, and perhaps even inspiration to anyone endeavoring to resolve these problems and help effective use of the Internet in the K-12 classroom become a reality.

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How to Grow Courseware

Strategies of the Development of an Educational Web-Site: Case of REA (Renewal Energy for All) System in Korea - Paper 160

Okhwa LEE
Chungbuk National University Korea

1. WWW as an instructional medium. The systematic approach of instructional design (ID) has been applied for many years to the development of educational materials; it can also be applied in this new medium. The World Wide Web has been very popular among educators due to the following reasons:

  • It's multimedia-based.
  • It makes it easy to maintain instructional materials. I
  • t's an efficient method of communication.
  • It's cheap to deliver.
  • It's an effective tool for collaboration.

Although we often use the Web as an instructional medium, we do not know how to design the navigation, menu, and contents. This paper will discuss how to develop an educational Web site based on the experience of the development of the REA (Renewable Energy for All) system in Korea.

2. Development of REA. Four steps of the ID approach were applied in developing the REA system:

  • Needs assessment: The target audience of REA is the general public, which by definition means people with the reading and comprehension skills of 6th or 7th graders. Because the goal of this educational system is to promote awareness of the newly developing or developed technology for renewable energy in Korea for the next generation, the scope of renewable energy was defined in six areas: solar energy (heat and photovoltaic); biomass; fuels and chemicals; recycling and wastes; and wind. Examples and case studies needed to focused on areas familiar to readers.
  • Design: REA tried to provide familiar examples of renewable energy, because personalized knowledge leads to more effective learning. Learning speed can be individualized according to preference. This Web page is designed for teachers to use in the classroom, and students can use this home page as the knowledge base. The design was presented in storyboard formats and plain language report forms.
  • Development: HTML, Java programming, and multimedia generation methods were applied. Multimedia materials were collected and generated in machine-readable digital formats.
  • Evaluation: REA was used with primary and secondary school students, and their responses were collected using survey forms and interviews. These responses were used to update the system.

3. Analysis of survey. The survey was conducted in order to determine whether and how the Web is an effective medium in learning about renewable energy and to develop strategies of designing navigation paths, using examples for gender differences. The responses on the survey forms collected from secondary and primary school students need to be studied to answer the following questions: When selecting a menu, do students choose the content in order? If so, what causes them to choose such a path -- the title of the submenu or the placement of the submenu on the frame? Are there any gender differences in selecting contents based on preference? Will there be any differences between boys and girls in choosing frames? How well do students learn the content when they learn through the Web? How well do students use the menu?

4. Suggestions for further development. A multimedia educational Web site is good, but a multimedia database can provide an even richer knowledge base for experts as well as parents, teachers, and students. Developing multimedia databases requires a lot of money, energy, and manpower. If this development can be conducted among international professionals, we can share invaluable resources. Participating countries can get together to set up the framework of the raw materials and the DB environment. Another suggestion for using the renewable education system is to conduct project-based school activities. The Internet-based Web can provide a rich educational environment. Web-based instruction (WBI) has three instructional models: communication tool (international exchanges), information collection, and problem solving. Each type can have various subtypes of instructional models. Educational Web sites should be designed and developed based on instructional strategies.

Dynamic Geometry and the World Wide Web - Paper 162

Gilles KUNTZ
Université de Grenoble France

The development of dynamic geometry in teaching is spurring the creation of many pedagogical Web sites that cannot benefit from this technology throughout their pages at the present time. Classical techniques in figures animation on the Web are either too limited or too difficult to implement. The project Cabri-Java plans to develop for the first time a Java applet allowing one to bundle all the advantages of dynamic geometry in active figures. The realization of a complete Java application for creating and manipulating figures is being studied.

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Is the Net to Education What Steroids Are to Muscles? 

The KIDS Report: Student Publishers Collaborate to Produce an Internet Resource - Paper 174

Barbara SPITZ
Madison (Wisconsin) Metropolitan School District USA

Susan CALCARI University of Wisconsin-Madison USA

K.I.D.S. (Kids Identifying and Discovering Sites) is an ongoing Internet report of useful Web sites produced by K-12 students as a resource for other K-12 students. This unique project is a cooperative effort of two classrooms in the Madison Metropolitan School District in Madison, Wisconsin, one classroom each in Nederland and Boulder, Colorado, and one recently added high school classroom in Hoover, Alabama. While K.I.D.S. is facilitated by the NSF Internet Scout Project, the real work is done by the students, who select, evaluate, and annotate all Internet resources in every issue.

Internet-based Distance Education for Sustainability - Paper 436

Hae Un RII Dongguk
University Korea

Hyo Hyun SUNG
Ewha Womans University Korea

Gill-Chin LIM
Michigan State University USA

We are living in a society with an unprecedentedly rapid pace of social transformation. As we move into the information society, we are inundated with both technical and nontechnical information from all around the world. Our world is experiencing information revolution and globalization. For educators, information revolution and globalization demand new understanding of social trends, technological possibilities, and cultural mandates to improve the quality of education and eventually the quality of life for all people on earth.

For equal quality of education and sustainable education, distance education using educational technology such as computer-assisted learning, computer-managed learning, the World Wide Web, and computer-mediated communication is a possible solution. In this paper, we explore the technical and social potential of using the Internet to heighten the quality of education and eventually the quality of human life in an information era.

To ascertain the situation in the Korean educational sector, we created maps for distribution of elementary, middle, and high schools, as well as universities and colleges using GIS (Geographic Information Systems) with spatial and attribute data. An important background element of our paper is the broadly defined concept of sustainability. We also described various possibilities of educational technology and applied the conceptual model of managing educational institutions using GIS. Along this line of technical modeling and assessment of networking in the Korean educational sector, we also presented EDUCOM -- a voluntary civic movement to reform the educational sector by combining humanistic values, information technology like the Internet, and a sense of community.

The Internet is a highly efficient means to generate and evaluate complex location-allocation problems involving educational opportunity, governance, quality, and satisfaction. The advances in sciences and information technology face various criticisms and challenges. We believe that people can lead our society to a bright future if we make the best use of science and technology, guided by humanistic values. The Internet provides powerful technological possibilities to construct sustainable educational systems.

Web-enhanced Learning Environment Strategies for Classroom Teachers - Paper 288

Barbara GRABOWSKI
Tiffany KOSZALKA
Pennsylvania State University USA

Marianne MCCARTHY
National Aeronautics and Space Administration USA

This paper presents a model for conceptualizing the components of the WWW and merges resources with six sound pedagogical classroom practices. Six Web-enhanced learning environment strategies result from this merger. The resources, the pedagogy, and the strategies, along with examples, are explained in detail.

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To Net or Not to Net

Intellectual Property and Copyright: How Do We Manage These Issues in an International Electronic Environment and Protect Education Interests? - Paper 194

Janis H. BRUWELHEIDE
Montana State University USA

How do we create an innovative, supportive environment for teaching and learning in an electronic environment while attending to copyright and intellectual property concerns? The subject of intellectual property is one of importance to individuals involved in all aspects of Internet and Web-based education globally. This session will set forth some intellectual property concerns and issues for faculty and institutions and suggest policy and content points for consideration.

Electronic Communication and the Humanities - Paper 108

Barton D. THURBER
Jack W. POPE
University of San Diego USA

A number of electronic communication techniques have begun to evolve, including e-mail--based discussion groups, telecommunications, Web sites and searches and related implementations, and are increasingly being used in upper-division college-level humanities courses. The authors review those techniques and the research that supports their use, and then look specifically at applications in the humanities.

Though clearly cost effective, and capable of generating experiences without parallel in the conventional classroom, we argue that current techniques for electronic communication do not address fundamental concerns in the humanities and may in some cases obscure them. In part the problem involves the humanities themselves, which have been slow to define what it is that they distinctively do, if it is something other than impart information, but we think there are unexamined assumptions on the technical side. If a tape of a lecture is the lecture itself (we're not sure it is), is a tape of a seminar still the seminar, in the same sense? Is an e-mail conversation the same as a conversation, and if not, what are the differences, and what is the significance of those differences? Is an extracurricular meeting with an instructor comparable to an extracurricular chat site? What is the (pedagogical) relationship between real and virtual, and what should it be? These questions have not been systematically addressed for the humanities, but, we argue, finally, they must be: decisions are already being made about (for example) transfer credit for courses taken electronically; and it is not obvious that transfer credit for such coursework will be forthcoming across the board.

The Pros and Cons of Implementing the Internet in the Classroom: Making Sense of the Hype - Paper 057

Eszter HARGITTAI
Princeton University USA

Education is one of the very few social institutions that most if not all citizens come in contact with at one time or another in their lives. In the current educational model, students play a passive role in the learning process by mostly just listening to instructors despite the fact that knowing how to access information, analyze data, and communicate with others on a regular basis are essential skills. Emphases in education have to be shifted: from knowing to learning; from focus on content to focus on concepts; and from focus on the teacher's role as information provider to the teacher's role as information guide. This paper discusses both the advantages and disadvantages of network implementation in the classroom concerning the Internet as a resource base, the Internet as a tool affecting social behavior, the pattern of its diffusion, and the additional responsibilities it places on the educational institution. The paper concludes that the Internet should not be seen as a replacement of current (or future) educational tools and materials, but as an addition to them. It is in light of new teacher and student roles that Internet implementation has to be considered.

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